An overview of Kathleen Wickham’s ‘Math Tools for Journalists,’ chapters 5–8

Chapter 5: polls and surveys

It is a reporter’s job to help an audience understand the accuracy of polls and surveys. Polls are an estimate of public opinion on a single topic or question.

Polls are most frequently used in politics and based on the representative samples. Surveys are also based on representative samples, but include a multitude of questions. These are usually used in the social sciences.


A valid sample is large enough to represent the population that is being considered. Pollsters usually Aim for at least 400 interviews to keep the margin of error within acceptable limits.

Untitled Infographic-21

Margin of error indicates the degree of accuracy of the research based on standard norms. Margin of error is expressed as a percentage and is based on the size of a randomly selected sample. Margin of error refers to a percentage of the actual polled number, not the percentage of the result.

Confidence level is the level or percentage at which researchers have confidence in the results of their research.

Adjusted figures are figures that are statistically manipulated to compensate for missing data.

Z-scores and t- scores

Journalists should have a basic understanding of z-scores and t-scores, which are often used in reporting the results of studies. A z-score, sometimes called a standard score, shows how much a particular figure differs from the mean:

Z score = (raw score – mean) / Standard deviation

The t-score, sometimes called student’s t-distribution, is closely related to z-scores. The t-score is used when the sample size is small, roughly 100 or fewer.

Practice Problem

A senior undergraduate conducting independent research at Elrond University wants to find out how many students on campus attend some religious service on a weekly basis. Select one of the five sampling methods and justify your answer.

Chapter 6: business

Business news is often big news, and this beat especially utilizes a great deal of math. Large corporations usually report earnings and results quarterly, though more detailed information, including financial statements, can be found in annual reports.

Profit and loss

The profit and loss statement, commonly called P&L, shows whether a company is making money by subtracting expenses from income. “Cost of goods sold” refers to the direct expense a business incurs by making or buying products. “Overhead” refers to the expenses not directly related to the product being made. The difference between the “cost of goods sold” and the selling price is considered the “gross margin.”

EBITDA stands for “earning before interest, taxes, depreciation and amortization” – this is also known as “operational cash flow.”

Gross margin = selling price – cost of goods sold

Gross profit = gross margin * number of items sold

Net profit = gross margin – overhead

Balance sheets

A balance sheet is a written financial statement of a company’s assets, liabilities and equity. The asset side of the balance sheet always equals the liabilities and equity side. Assets are resources owned by a company that have some economic value. Current assets include cash, investments and other liquid items of value. Long-term assets include buildings, office furniture, etc. Equity means the value of the company, and normally refers to the owners and shareholders investments in the company, capital accounts and other related assets. Liabilities are obligations, such as the loans, that need to be paid at some other date.

Assets = liabilities + equity

Ratio analysis

Ratios are calculations that analysts and business owners used to evaluate the company’s cash situation, Probability, operating efficiency and market value.

Current ratio = current assets / current liabilities

Quick ratio is a liquidity ratio that measures the ability of a company to meet its current liabilities with cash on hand.

Quick ratio = cash / current liabilities

Debt-to-asset ratio is similar to current ratio, except it includes all assets and all liabilities.

Debt-to-asset = total debt / equity

Return on total assets is a profitability ratio that measures return on the investment on all assets.

Return to assets = net income / total assets

Return on equity is a probability ratio that measures to return on the investment made equity.

Return on equity = net income / equity

Price-earnings ratio is a value ratio that measures the return of the investment based on stock price.

Price-earnings = market price / earnings

Practice Problem

Elrond University buys 1,500 bushels of pine straw from Gardenz Wholesale Co. at $5 a ton. Elrond uses 800 bushels to maintain its pristine flowerbeds. President Lampoon wants to get rid of the excess pine straw. He offers it to Low Point University for $15 a bushel. Low Point has always admired Elrond University’s superior taste in ascetics and gladly accepts. What was Elrond’s gross margin on the sale?

Chapter 7: stocks and bonds 


Corporations sell stocks to raise cash, and people buy stocks as investments. When an individual buys a share of stock in a company, he or she becomes a partial owner of that company. The value of the company’s stock varies based on its demand.

Mutual funds are an alternative way to invest in stocks. Mutual fund companies sell shares of funds, and then use that money to buy stock in other companies.

Newspapers typically publish a stock table. In a stock table, “div” represents the most recent annual dividend that the company paid to shareholders, “PE” represents the price/earnings ratio, “last” represents the price of one share at the end of the previous day, and “change” represents how much the stock price went up or down that day.


A bond is a loan from an investor to the government or another organization selling the bond. Unlike stocks, bonds earn interest at a set rate and are generally low risk investments. The face value of the bond is the amount that the bondholder will receive at maturity. The value of the bond on the open market fluctuates with supply and demand. The bonds current yield is its return on the investment, which therefore also fluctuates.

Current yield = (interest rate * face value) / price

Bond cost is the actual cost of a bond issued by a multiplicity.

Bond cost (interest) = amount * rate * years

Market indexes

Stock indexes track the price of certain groups of socks, allowing investors to get a snapshot of overall market conditions. Dow Jones & Co. is able to provide a snapshot of the entire stock market by monitoring the value of 30 key stocks.

NASDAQ is an acronym for the National Association of Securities Dealers Automated Quotations. It is a subsidiary of the National Association of Securities Dealers and is monitored by the Securities and Exchange Commission. NASDAQ is an automated quotation system that reports on trading of domestic stocks and bonds not listed on the stock market.

Practice problem

Janet Adamson, reporter for Elrond Daily News, noted that members of a local investment club paid $8,000 for a bond with a $9,500 face value and a 5 percent interest rate. What’s the bond’s current yeild?

Chapter 8: property taxes

Property taxes are the largest single source of income for local governments and certain other municipal organizations. The property tax rate is determined by taking the total amount of money that the governing body needs and dividing that among the property owners in that taxing district. How much each owner pays is based on the value of his or her property.

Property taxes are measured in units called mills. A mill is one-tenth of a cent. Property taxes are expressed in terms of mills levied for each dollar of the assessed valuation of the property.

Property is often taxed by more than one governing body – to prevent local governments from playing games with the tax rate, state officials often regulate the process.

Mill levy = Taxes to be collected by the government body / assessed valuation of all property in the taxing district

Assessed value and appraisal value

Property taxes do not apply to the actual price of a home on the open market. The assessed value is a percentage of market value and depends on local policies.

Assessed value = appraisal value * rate

The appraisal updates real property values to reflect current market values of all taxable properties within a taxing district, as some neighborhoods fluctuate in value over time.

The percentage used to calculate the assessed value of a property might differ based on the type of property. Appraisal value is based on the property’s use and characteristics, current market conditions as determined by sales in the immediate area over time, and an official inspection of the property.

Calculating tax

Tax owed = tax rate * (assessed value of property / $100)

Divide the assessed value by $1,000, rather than $100, if the rate is based on an amount per $1,000 of assessed value.

Practice problem

The tax rate for the Town of Elrond for next year is $1.05 per $100 assessed value. If the house owned by Leopold Lampoon has an assessed value of $1,000,000, how much will he pay in taxes?


An overview of Kathleen Wickham’s ‘Math Tools for Journalists,’ chapters 1–4

by Dalton Cox

Chapter one: the language of numbers

Journalists committed to precision in reporting need to understand the language of numbers. A good place to begin is by checking the math of one’s sources – look for implausible numbers that may have been altered to give a false impression. Numerical literacy among journalists will signal to audiences the importance of numeracy.

Style Tips

It is best to consult the Associated Press Stylebook when questions arise concerning cardinal numbers.

Generally, spell out numbers below 10 and use figures for numbers above 10, but spell the words cents, million, billion, trillion, ect. When referring to money, use numerals ($5 million, 1.9 billion tons of gummy bears).

Generally rounding numbers is preferred, but not in all cases. Check the AP Stylebook. Spell out fractions less than one.

For ordinal numbers, spell first through ninth and use numerals for 10th and above.

Never begin a sentence with a number, unless indicating a year.

If an organization uses a number in their name, follow the corporate style in writing your story.

Untitled Infographic-20

Numbers are always used for addresses, dates, highways, percentages, speeds, temperatures, time and weight. AP Style indicates that ages are expressed with figures, but this can vary if a publication uses a different stylebook.

Use the word minus, not a dash or hyphen, to avoid confusion.

Right out numbers in a slang expression (thanks a million).

In a series, retain the appropriate style for each entry.

Chapter two: percentages

Often figures are expressed more clearly if conveyed as percentages. By providing an accurate representation of such a percentage, a reporter is helping an audience better grasp an issue.

Percentage increase/ decrease

Percentage increase/ decrease = (new figure – old figure)/ old figure

Convert the percentage by moving the decimal point two places to the right.

Example: Elon Secondary School reduced its donation to the City Squirrel Sanctuary from $4,000 to $600. By what percentage was the donation cut?

600 – 4,000 = -3,400

-3,400/ 4,000 = -0.85

The donation was cut by 85 percent. Poor squirrels.

Percentage of a whole

Percentage of a whole = subgroup/ whole group

Move the decimal point two points to the right.

Low Point University spends $1.5 million on its badminton team. The entire athletic department budget is $4 million. What percentage of the budget does the badminton team consume?

1.5 million/ 4 million = .375 = 37.5 percent

Or About 38 percent. That’s a lot of shuttlecocks.

Percentage points

It’s important to distinguish between percentage and percentage point. One percent is one one-hundredth of something. A percentage point may be a different amount.

(new figure – old figure) – old figure = change in percentage POINTS

(change in percentage points)/old figure = PERCENTAGE changed

Simple/annual interest

The amount of money borrowed is called principal. The amount of money paid for the use of principal is called interest.

Interest = principal * rate (as a decimal) * time (in years)

Compounding interest

Compounding means interest is added to the original principal and subsequent compoundings apply the interest to the principal plus the interest of the previous compoundings.

A = monthly payment

P = original loan amount

R = interest rate, expressed as a decimal and divided by 12

N = total number of months

A = [P x (1 + R)^N* x R]/[(1 + R)^N – 1]

*^N refers to ‘N’ to the power of, which means that the result inside the bracket is multiplied N number of times.

Practice Problem

The salary of University President Leopold Lampoon was raised from $35,000 to $110,300. What percentage increase was the president’s raise?

Chapter three: statistics

After percentages, the most common numbers that a reporter will likely encounter are statistics. Sources can easily manipulate statistics, so an accurate understanding of the material is essential to informing readers of the truth.

The mean is the sum of all figures in that group, divided by the total number of figures. The median refers to the midway point in a grouping of numbers. The mode is the number appearing most frequent among a set of numbers.

A percentile is a number representing the percentage of scores that falls at or below a designated score. This is often calculated in the occurrence of test taking, such as in reporting on SAT results.

Percentile rank = (number of people at or below an individual score)/ (number of test takers)

This can easily be reversed to tell the number of people who scored at or below a certain point, if you want to know the percentile rank:

Number of people scored at or below that level = (percentile) * (number of test takers)

Standard Deviation

Standard deviation indicates how much a group of figures varies from the norm. A small deviation indicates that figures are grouped around the mean, while a high deviation shows inconsistent results.

To find standard deviation:

Subtract the mean from each score in the distribution.

Square the resulting number for each score in the set.

Calculate the mean for each of these numbers. The result of this is referred to as the variance.

Find the square root of the variance.


Probability boils down to a ratio.

For Example: The Cox Institute for Made-Up Statistics reports that nearly 2,500 Americans die from quicksand incidents each day. There are about 290 million people in the united States, so the odds of dying in a quicksand incident would be:

2,500 deaths / 290 million people = .0000086

To describe such a probability, divide one by this number:

1 / .0000086 = 116,000

So the odds of dying in a quicksand incident (based on this made-up data) is “one out of 116,000”

Some probability issues are cleaner. Winning the lottery for example is pure chance. Formula used for lottery probability:

Odds of a series of events = Odds of first event * odds of second event * odds of third event, etc.

O = odds

N = number of events

O^N = odds of a series when each is the same

Practice Problem:

In her class, Janet Andrews scored in the 40th percentile on the ACT test.

There are 50 students in her class.

Only the top 30 students will receive the school’s illustrious smarty-pants plaque.

Will Janet receive this distinguished award?

Chapter four: federal statistics

The government provides a constant stream of information of interest to the public. It is important that journalists understand the origin of these numbers and how these numbers are used.


Every month, the U.S. Department of Labor issues a report on unemployment in the United States. The unemployment rate is defined by the percentage of the labor force that is unemployed and actively seeking work.

Unemployment rate = (unemployed/ labor force) x 100

Inflation and Consumer Price Index

U.S. inflation is measured by the Consumer Price Index, which shows the amount of inflation in any given month for eight major product groups: food and beverage, housing, appeal, transportation and recreation. This calculation is determined by a series of surveys on the spending habits of a sample of about 30,000 U.S. families and individuals.

Monthly Inflation Rate = (Current CPI – Prior Month CPI)/ Prior Month CPI * 100

Annual inflation rate

A = Annual Inflation Rate

B = Current month CPI

C = CPI from same month in previous year

A = (B – C) / C * 100

Inflation calculator

A = Target year value, in dollars

B = Starting year value, in dollars

AC = Target year CPI

BC = Starting year CPI

A = (B / BC) * AC

Monthly compounding inflation rate formula

C = cost after one year

K = original cost

I = inflation rate

C = K (1 + [I / 12] ) ^12

Gross Domestic Product (GDP)

GDP is the value of goods and services produced by a nation’s economy.

C = consumer spending on goods and services

I = investment spending

G = government spending

NX = net exports (exports minus imports)

GDP = C + I + G + NX

Trade balance

The trade balance is the difference between the goods and services that a country exports to foreign countries, and its imports from abroad:

Trade balance = Exports – imports

Practice Problem:

In 1999, the Republic of Narnia exported $55.4 billion worth of fine wine and imported $16.8 billion worth. What was the trade balance in fine wine?

Children seek immigration status in North Carolina

Photo by Dalton Cox
Photo by Dalton Cox

by Dalton Cox

She lived in world’s murder capital

A year ago, Miriam was a 13-year-old living in San Pedro Sula, Honduras – reportedly the murder capital of the world. She would never have dreamed back then that she would be living in Durham, North Carolina, today.

At the time it was a daily struggle for her simply to attend school. She was harassed each morning by menacing gang members she could not avoid along the way. She finally resorted to taking a taxi to the private school she attended in San Pedro Sula.

Though the final stretch of her daily commute still had to be made on foot, Miriam would then likely encounter only one group of thugs before reaching her refuge. The threatening men had made a target of Miriam, often claiming they might murder her or take her as one of their wives.

Miriam knew that the gangsters’ threats were not all hollow. Two of her cousins had been members of rival gangs. As retribution for this genetic disloyalty, gangsters murdered the wives of each cousin, leaving the two men to their grief.

Hensley. Photo by Dalton Cox
Hensley. Photo by Dalton Cox

“I’ve worked on a number of cases where the gang threats have stopped children from going to school,” said Derrick Hensley, the attorney handling Miriam’s immigration case. “I’m really surprised Miriam didn’t stop going – at least, she didn’t stop going until the time that led to her coming to the United States.”

In 2013, San Pedro Sula had a homicide rate of 187 homicides per 100,000 inhabitants. In April 2014, the city experienced a surge in child murders – Miriam had known several of these victims. Feeling increasingly threatened by gang violence, Miriam decided to risk the journey to the United States to be reunited with her mother, Sophia.

She almost did not survive.

Thousands of undocumented children still wait in North Carolina

Miriam is one of thousands of undocumented alien children who crossed into the United States during the immigration surge of the summer of 2014. They traveled primarily from Honduras, El Salvador and Guatemala. She was also one of 53,518 unaccompanied minors released by the Office of Refugee Resettlement to sponsors in the United States between October 2013 and September 2014; 2,064 of those children were released to sponsors in North Carolina.

A sponsor is a parent or guardian capable of housing and providing for a child awaiting an immigration hearing. Approximately 10 percent of children who cannot identify a sponsor are placed in to federal foster care.

To maintain lawful status to reside in the United States, children typically must prove their eligibility for either asylum or special immigrant juvenile status. If children are unable to make out their claim, then they generally are unable to stay in the United States.


“I think that saying that these children are receiving due process might be presumptive,” said Heather Scavone, director of the Humanitarian Immigration Law Clinic (HILC) at the Elon University School of Law. “There have been instances of in absentia deportation orders for some of these kids when they have not been put on notice that they have a hearing. Also, unless they are able to pay for an attorney they don’t have a constitutional right to counsel in the same way criminal defendants do – so you have in some cases, a 9-year-old child who has to defend himself in court without an attorney.”

If a child is exceedingly fortunate, the Office of Refugee Resettlement may refer him or her to a non-profit organization that can offer social services casework or pro bono legal service.

One such organization is the Elon University School of Law’s HILC. It primarily works with individuals who have already been granted asylum or refugee status in navigating the immigration bureaucracy; however, Scavone recently traveled with several students to a Texas detainment center to provide philanthropic service.

“The work the clinic does here is pretty unique,” said Marty Rosenbluth, clinical practitioner in residence at HILC. “The reason we got involved in the immigration surge was out of broader concern for the issue.”

Another one of several organizations that provide casework for undocumented alien children in North Carolina is the social ministry organization Lutheran Services Carolinas. LSC increased its casework in 2014, from assisting approximately 50 undocumented alien children to now handling 84 cases.

“Their route to staying in the United States probably becomes much better the point where they gain advocates,” said Mary Ann Johnson, director of community relations for Lutheran Services. “They get pretty good care and are looked after.”

Photo by Dalton Cox
Photo by Dalton Cox

Bedrija Jazic is the director of refugee services at LSC. When Jazic fled Bosnia in 1996, she was in her 20s.

She explained that in the cases of refugees LSC only takes on cases referred by the Office of Refugee Resettlement, and all must be individuals at high risk. This risk may broadly encompass anything from physical abuse to posttraumatic stress-like symptoms.

“I cannot say it’s a fair process, because of the costs that this involves,” Jazic said. “I would think that we should provide more post-relief services and take care of more of the kids who are received.” 

Miriam held for ransom, finally reaches refuge 

Sophia had left Honduras in 2003. She fled in part from Miriam’s father. He was an abuser who had thrown bottles of beer in to Sophia’s face at parties, an addict who had once held a loaded gun to Sophia’s head and a member of Honduran military who would stalk and threaten Sophia after she left him.

“It is pretty well established that you can’t call the police on a member of the military or else you’re likely to get shot or put away somewhere,” Hensley said.

When Sophia sought sanctuary in the United States she left toddler Miriam in the care of relatives in San Pedro Sula. Sophia regularly sent her family financial support from abroad, but a decade passed before she would be reunited with her daughter in the United States.

Before Miriam could cross the Rio Grande, members of the Mexican criminal syndicate Los Zetas abducted her, along with several other migrants, to be held for ransom.

“They closed their eyes, so they wouldn’t see people coming and going,” Hensley said. “They heard people getting executed, and there were dead people lying about. They heard gunshots, and they were blindfolded or had their eyes covered. They could only leave the room to go to the bathroom.”

Sophia was contacted and asked to pay $3,300 for her daughter’s release. Miriam was held captive for three weeks, until her mother’s payment was received in full.

When Miriam finally reached the United States, she was taken in to the custody of the United States Customs and Border Protection (CBP), and placed in a frigid holding cell – often referred to as the hielera, or icebox.

Now in the land of the free, Miriam’s body relinquished its strength. She was having trouble breathing. The teenager began to cough up blood and developed a serious fever. Eventually, her condition would cause her to slip in to a comma.

Undocumented children struggle to be ‘productive citizens’ in North Carolina

In July 2014, North Carolina Gov. Pat McCrory joined the Republican governors of Alabama, Kansas, North Carolina, Pennsylvania, Utah and Wisconsin in signing a letter of concern, sent to President Barack Obama, regarding the border surge.

“We are concerned that there will be significant numbers who will end up using the public schools, social services and health systems largely funded by the states,” the governors wrote in arguing against the intake of too many refugees.

Derrick Hensley takes argument with this logic.

“It’s not widely disproportionate to our overall population,” Hensley said. “Durham has almost 250,000 residents, and we got about 200 unaccompanied alien children. That’s less than one tenth of one percent. It’s a highly vulnerable and needy population, but it’s sort of remarkable that people are worried that these children will bring the plague, that this is upsetting our economy, that this is a threat to our national security.”

Number of unaccompanied minors in states compared to state population. Based on information taken from the U.S. Office of Refugee Resettlement and the U.S. Census Bureau. Click to enlarge. Infographic by Dalton Cox
Number of unaccompanied minors in states compared to state population. Based on information taken from the U.S. Office of Refugee Resettlement and the U.S. Census Bureau. Click to enlarge. Infographic by Dalton Cox

Receiving mental health care and making up any educational deficit are two elements that Hensley considers to be foundationally important once children have settled in the United States.

Though it is illegal to deny children public education based on their immigration status, several reports were made in 2014 of North Carolina school districts allegedly denying undocumented children the right to enroll.

“It’s difficult to know the scope of the problem,” said Matt Ellinwood, a policy analyst for the North Carolina Justice Center’s Education and Law Project. “What’s exceptionally common was substantial delays in the process. We call it the chilling effect.”

“Chilling” describes the systematic barriers that undocumented alien children encounter when attempting to enroll in school or to receive health services. For instance, it can be especially difficult for migrant children to provide proof of residence when registering for school. Such inabilities to provide correct documentation generally take one month before they can be resolved.

“It’s extremely difficult and costly to provide the remediation needed to move people ahead,” Ellinwood said. “There’s no way to get back that time that is lost, when you face that kind of delay. The children have every right to be in school. We want to get them educated and to get them to be as productive citizens as they can be. The earlier we can get them enrolled, the more it’s going to help.”

In May 2014, the U.S. Justice and Education Departments provided updated guidelines to deter the chilling effect. These seem to have reduced the number of complaints made against North Carolina schools for denying undocumented children enrollment.

Ellinwood believes that, despite logistical tangles and deficits of individual education, the children are generally socially accepted by their classmates.


“These children always amaze me with how much more excepting they are than adults are,” Ellinwood said. “They’re extremely welcoming from what I’ve seen, and I’ve never heard of any negative incidents. Many migrant children are coming into the United States with better English language skills, so they’re better integrated than in years past.”

While these young people are extensively disadvantaged and face various mental health repercussions due to their challenging lives, Hensley said most unaccompanied alien children are capable of resilient progress, provided some resources. Hensley is typically in close contact with unaccompanied alien children and their families for about a year, while providing them legal service.

“I do see a change in the children over that time,” Hensley said. “They’re healthier. They’re happier. All of them attend school and make good progress eventually. Most of them tend to try very hard.”

Daughter and mother reunited in home of the brave 

Miriam spent five days in a hospital when she finally reached the United States.

When Sophia finally arrived at the hospital where Miriam was receiving care she was not allowed to see her daughter immediately because of immigration policies.

Today mother and daughter live together in Durham. Since fleeing Honduras Sophia has remarried and had two children, both of whom are United States citizens. Miriam is currently continuing her secondary education, and she is seeking special immigrant juvenile status.

To protect the individuals, the actual names of Miriam and Sophia were not used in this article.

Clinton seems likely Democratic nominee, opinion split on her potential for presidency


Former Secretary of State Hillary Clinton announced on April 12 in a video released on her new campaign website that she will seek the Democratic nomination in the 2016 presidential election. Though her nomination as the democratic nominee seems secure, the chance for the Oval Office seems to be anybody’s game.

Jason Husser, an Elon University professor of political science and policy studies, discusses Hillary Clinton’s odds on the road to the U.S. presidency.


“There probably has not ever been a presidential candidate whose record has been sifted through as much as Hillary,” Husser said. “There’s really nothing else to say. It’s almost like her nomination as the Democratic nominee has been a forgone conclusion for months now.”

In February 2015, the Elon Poll asked respondents, Hillary or Jeb Bush for president? Hillary had 46 percent of the respondents support.

“She’ll be successful because she has such a strong movement of women – just happy that a woman’s running – but I know that a lot of people aren’t necessarily happy about her running,” said Julia, an Elon First Year. “So it’s hard to say if she’ll win but I do think that she’ll have a strong movement.”

Julia asked to not provide her last name.

Elon sophomore Hayley Dalton agrees with Julia. She respects Clinton’s progression for women in politics, though she is unsure that Clinton is the presidential candidate for her.

“I think she represents a lot for women in politics, and that I support” I’m more of a conservative, fiscally – socially, not so much,” Dalton said. “I know Governor Chris Christie is thinking about the presidency, and I’m from New Jersey. I think he’s a pretty practical politician.”

Henry Crompton, an Elon senior, predicts Hillary’s failure in her campaign to the White House.

“I don’t think Hillary will be successful at all,” Crompton said. “I don’t think she’s an ideal candidate. It might be because I’m conservative leaning.”

Other local Elon community members remain nonaligned in these early stages of the forthcoming election.

“I have done some research and I feel positively neutral towards her,” said Erin Valentine, Elon Class of 2015. “I’m not sure if I would vote for her, but I wouldn’t mind seeing her as president.”

Live convocation update 

By Dalton Cox

(Above) A photo of two cousins

A genetics lesson, considering the scientific and mathematic fact that all human beings on Earth share some common ancestor:

“If I want to use some achievement of some person in my family line as inspiration for who I might become, I include the entire human race,” Tyson said.

Live convocation update – Introducing Neil deGrasse Tyson

All content by Dalton Cox

“My staff tells me you have also been voted the sexiest astrophysicist alive,” said Elon President Leo Lambert to Neil deGrasse Tyson

Tyson later explained this was by People Magizene and he doesn’t know who he beat for the title.

More importantly, Tyson is the voice of a generation.

“We need science to be openly communicative… This generation knows Dr. Tyson’s voice,” said Benjamin Evens.